English translation of. Holy Akaranga Sutra. English translation by Hermann Jacobi taken from Contents: Introduction. Akaranga Sutra: First Book: 1. Knowledge of the weapon. 2. Conquest of the world. 3. Hot and cold. 4. Righteousness. 5. Essence of the. Gaina Sutras, Part I – The Akaranga Sutra, The Kalpa Sutra [transl; F. Max Muller Hermann Jacobi] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not accept juice of mangos, inspissated juice of mangos, juice of wood-apples, citrons, grapes, wild dates, pomegranates, cocoa-nuts, bamboos, jujubes, myrobalans, tamarinds, or any such-like liquor containing particles of the shell or skin or seeds, which liquor the layman, for the sake of the mendicant, pressed, straincd, or filtered through a basket, cloth, or a cow’s tail; for such liquor is impure and unacceptable.

Preventing the propensity to sin destroys former actions. For some men in this world have such a character that they will desire to enjoy their portion, whether it be large or small, in the three ways [2]: This thief enters or does not enter, he hides himself or does not hide himself, he creeps in or does not creep in, he speaks or does not speak; he has taken it, another has taken it, it is taken from that man; this is the thief, this is the accomplice, this is the murderer, he has done so’.

A monk or a nun, knowing that a boat will cross the river, should, after having received the owners permission, step apart, examine their outfit, put aside their provender, wipe their body from head to heels, reject the householder’s food, and putting one foot in the water and the other in the air, they should circumspectly enter the boat.

Jaina Sutras, Part I (SBE22) Index

The last thirty years of his life he passed in teaching his religious system and organising his order of ascetics, akaragna, as we have seen above, was patronised or at least countenanced chiefly by those princes with whom he was related through his mother, viz. Besides, such a theory is a necessary consequence both of the Buddhistical and Gaina creed.


Repenting and excluding from the mind the begotten pleasures, one should instruct others to follow the commandment. Knowing them, a wise man should not act sinfully towards fire, nor cause others to act so, nor allow others to act so. What has been said here, has been seen by the omniscient onesheard by the believersacknowledged by the faithfuland thoroughly understood by them.

Jaina Sutras, Part I

Disregarding slights difficult to bear, the Sage wandered about, not attracted by story-tellers, pantomimes, songs, fights at quarter-staff, and boxing-matches. If a aksranga or a nun see that water enters through a leak in the boat, and the boat becomes dirty all over, they should not approach the boatman and say: Correctly understanding the law, one should arrive at indifference for the impressions of the senses [2], and ‘not act on the motives of the world. The knowledge of these Purvas was gradually lost, till at last it became totally extinct.

Not minding heat and cold, eqvanimous against pleasure and pain, the Nirgrantha does not feel the austerity of penance.

jaina akaranga sutra

If they were full of contradictory statements, or the dates contained in them would lead to contradictory conclusions, we should be justified in viewing all theories based on such materials with suspicion. The last two akaranha could just as well be taken from a sacred book of the Gainas, for they are in full. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

He who knows these causes of sin relating to plants, is called a reward-knowing sage. For what Buddha or Mahavira had revealed was, of course, regarded by the followers of either as truth and the only truth; this truth must have existed from the beginning of time, like the Veda of the Brahmans; but could the truth have remained unknown during the infinite space of time elapsed before the appearance of the prophet?

The Sutra contains two books, or Srutaskandhas. Now the mendicant should again know: But the Gainas fully concur in the Brahmanic theory of the Atman, with sutrq this difference, that they ascribe to suyra Atmans a limited space, while the Brahmans of the Sankhya, Nyaya, and Vaiseshika schools contend that the Atmans are co-extensive with the universe.

And he the mendicant delights in pilgrimage, religious exercises, study, begging for a bed, a couch, or other alms.


The Akaranga Sutra

As the law has been revealed for the full one, so for the empty one; as for the empty one, so for the full one [1]. About this he is informed when he has understood or heard, either from the Revered One or from the monks, the faith to be coveted. This reminds us of the style of the Brahmanical Sutras; but there is this difference, that in the last-named works the single aphorisms are the necessary links in the logical concatenation of ideas, while in our book the single sentences or parts of sentences do not seem to be connected with one another in order to carry on the illustration of an idea.

Whatever means one knows for calming one’s own life, that a wise man should learn i. A monk or a nun on a begging-tour may be invited to meat or fish containing many bones, by the householder who ssutra him thus: Faithful according to the commandment of the Tirthakaraswise, and understanding the world according to the commandment—such a man is without danger akaarnga from anywhere.

Ssutra a wise man should lead the life of an ascetic by collecting pure alms or any alms in all sorts of families. A sage should not rub his eyes nor scratch his body.

That is the fifth rule for begging food. Therefore should a well-controlled Nirgrantha not resolve to go to any festival which is preceded or followed by a feast.

Besides it is highly improbable that they should have imitated the Buddhists, when they had in the Brahmanic ascetics much older and more respected models. But, unfortunately, it is not at all clear whether the sacred books have been handed down in that language in which they were composed, or in that in which they were pronounced, and transcribed in later generations, according to the then current idiom, till Devarddhi’s edition put an end to the modernising of the language akarwnga the sacred books.