Sunday, October 7, r. O DnitMAfl M A M. aH viUe f nmslANl. Talbot. 8 A. M. CAPITOL. Cre. A M. ‘LACIXL HLLL. Cottcn. ilB. A. Frost. II M. cm. El Cuento Del SE Nor Jerem IAS Pescador – Libro De Essais de Morale, Contenus En Divers Traites Sur The Electrification of Russia, , Jonathan Coopersmith. When and how to prescribe psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents: une pensée à contenu pragmatique avec un mode d’expression très descriptif. for Children (STAIC) and by the Coopersmith’s Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI).

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Testretest reliability is 0. Immediately upon reporting a delusion or hallucination, the subject was asked to complete the scales assessing wei comforting or discomforting and the enhancing or diminishing effects of the psychotic experience. Kaney and Bentall suggest that delusions of persecution maintain self-esteem by attributing blame for negative events to other people or circumstances 4. Of the 40 subjects, 15 had delusions only, 2 had hallucinations only, and 23 had a combination of the two.

This pattern indicates that these 6 areas of self-esteem are partially independent but also share varying amounts of overlap. Auditory hallucinations were most frequent [30], followed by visual [19], tactile [4], olfactory [3], and gustatory [2] hallucinations.

Global self-esteem and specific areas of self-esteem are meaningful constructs derived from conscious and unconscious self-assessments. Information on variables such as age, education, medications prescribed, and length of illness was clopersmith from each subjects chart.

Both were at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, a university-affiliated teaching centre in Toronto, Canada.


As shown in Table 1, all 6 of the self-esteem measures were highly intercorrelated, particularly global self-esteem and self-regard. The sections assessing delusions and hallucinations were used in this study. Adult and child forms of the inventory have been developed, and over studies have assessed the reliability and validity of these measures. Coopersmoth PSE includes criteria for highly probable and less probable ratings.

To investigate the hypothesis that the content of delusions and hallucinations is significantly influenced by subjects global self-esteem and by 5 specific areas of self-esteem. On average, subjects found their delusions and hallucinations to be slightly uncomfortable and diminishing to the self.

Organic coopersmlth disorder was diagnosed in 2 subjects, drug-induced psychosis in 1 subject, and delusional disorder in 1 subject. Many psychological factors may be relevant, but few have been systematically and objectively investigated 1.

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Alternatively, if the content of delusions and hallucinations defends self-esteem, lower self-esteem would produce more favourable, self-enhancing content. If the content of delusions and hallucinations reflects an individuals self-esteem, lower self-esteem would promote less favourable content while higher self-esteem would be reflected by more positive content.

Delusional content is therefore consistent with patients views of themselves, and this may partially account for the cooprsmith of delusions. The present study examines whether the content of delusions and hallucinations can be shown to reflect or to defend self-esteem. Method Subjects The study took place on 2 inpatient units, one a general adult unit and the other a chronic schizophrenia unit.

One scale measured comfortdiscomfort on a 6-point scale ranging from very comfortable to very uncomfortable. The most frequent were delusions of reference [37], persecution [29], grandiose delusions [23], and delusions of control [16].


Waham Original Research Inggris

The raters completed their assessments independently. The 6-point scale ranged from very negative to very positive. Thus self-esteem is one intrapsychic factor that may be considered likely ce influence the content of delusions and hallucinations. Only delusions and hallucinations meeting the highly probable criterion were included in the study.

The delusions and hallucinations of 40 psychotic patients were assessed by 2 independent raters for content indicative of positive or negative self-esteem and for the extent to which the delusional content would be self-enhancing or diminishing and comforting or discomforting to the subject.

Higher self-esteem would not need to be defended against and would likely result in more varied content. Testretest reliability of the SRS is significant beyond the 0. Three scales were designed for use by the raters. This increased the probability that overvalued cpntenu and illusions were excluded. For delusions, the mean comfort level was 2. All subjects had been actively psychotic within the month prior to testing, and no subject was free of psychotic symptoms when tested.

Each subject was assigned a number, which was used by the raters when they were completing the ratings. The raters were 2 inpatient psychiatrists who were blind to subjects scores and to the identity of the subjects.