Psychological egoism is the doctrine that the only thing anyone is capable of desiring or pursuing ultimately is. a. entirely selfish goals. b. his or her own. Psychological egoism is the thesis that we are always deep down motivated by . does not concern oneself, but it is hardly altruistic (Feinberg /, §9, p. Psychological egoism is a universal claim: it is a claim about all human actions; the .. Feinberg doesn’t just critique this argument for hedonistic psychological.
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Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. But, as we will see, much of it is rather tangential to the thesis of psychological altruism. Philosophical Arguments Against Egoism Considering the arguments, the case for psychological egoism seems rather weak.
After all, few if any ethical egoists think of egoism as giving the correct content of morality, while also thinking that the rational thing to do is determined by some non-egoist consideration. Similarly flawed in Feinberg’s opinion is the second argument.
History of Western Philosophy. For detailed discussions of the background assumptions involved here, see Batsonpp. Originally published inOxford: Ethical egoism, then, recommends an impossible state of affairs. But the class of ultimate desires may include much more than this. But say I am wrong: According to Slote, the basic support for functional dependence is the following: Say F 1 and F 2 are psychologically connected because for example F 2 has a memory of F 1 ‘s experiences.
One worry is that psychological continuity might substitute for identity.
Psychological egoism – Wikipedia
The argument runs as follows. However, many egoistic explanations have been tested along similar lines and appear to be disconfirmed. I deny that others ought to maximize my good they should maximize their own goods.
Cited here form reprint in Reason and Responsibility seventh editioned. The genes for a given trait must first be available in the gene pool for selection. Sometimes such benefit presupposes a desire for what generated it e.
Finally, Sidgwick might be claiming that my point of view, like an impartial point of view, is non-arbitrary. Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.
Several other egoistic views are related to, but distinct from psychological egoism. Further, they claim the solution to avoiding suffering is enlightenment.
Even though it is true that every human being seeks his own satisfaction, this sometimes may only be achieved via the well-being of his neighbor. The psychological egoist might reply that some such account must be right.
Second, Elliot Sober and David Wilson argue that evolutionary theory supports altruism. So far as he can tell, there are egoiwm primary arguments for it:. Blackwell Publishers,p. The crucial question becomes: It also faces a worry for psuchological objective theory: In any event, more recent empirical research is more apt and informative to this debate. A long citation here characterizes such a life: Developing a clear and precise account of the egoism-altruism debate is more difficult than it might seem at first.
This is supposed to be a psychological fact of human motivations. Altruism and Psychological Egoism in Normative Ethics categorize this paper. Views Read Edit View history. There are two main theories.
Ethical Egoism Ethical egoism claims that it is paychological and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximize one’s self-interest. Feinberg held many major fellowships during his career and lectured by invitation at universities around the world. Perhaps he threw himself on the grenade because he could not bear to live with himself afterwards if he did not do so.
In many situations, others will neither have the ability to see my true motivation nor care about it.
Egoism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Spencer asserted the best adapted creatures will have their pleasure levels outweigh their pain levels in their environments. This is analogous to the tennis player who only enjoys tennis when she wins. It is most often attributed to only Thomas Hobbes and Jeremy Rgoism One might also think of the rational act as what maximizes or as what would be reasonably believed to maximize. There are two problems for this reply. To make the point in a different way — I would not take steps to ensure that only one of B and C come about.
The fourth argument for psychological egoism [pleasure, pain, feinbrg moral education] leads to paradox: He mounts a famous argument against psychological hedonism in particular.